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17 common metal forming processes

1.Planing processing

it is a cutting method in which a planer is used to make a horizontal relative linear reciprocating motion on the workpiece, which is mainly used for the shape processing of parts. The precision of planing processing is IT9~IT7, and the surface roughness Ra is 6.3~1.6um.

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2.Grinding processing

Grinding refers to the use of abrasives and abrasive tools to remove excess material from the workpiece. Grinding is one of the most widely used cutting methods.

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3.Selective laser melting

In a tank covered with metal powder, a computer controls a high-power carbon dioxide laser to selectively sweep the surface of the metal powder. Wherever the laser goes, the metal powder on the surface is completely melted and bonded together, while the powdery state remains where it is not illuminated. The whole process needs to be carried out in a sealed chamber filled with inert gas.

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4.Selective laser sintering

The SLS method uses infrared lasers as the energy source, and the modeling materials used are mostly powder materials. During processing, the powder is first preheated to a temperature slightly lower than its melting point, and then the powder is flattened under the action of a leveling stick; the laser beam is selectively sintered according to the layered section information under computer control, and one layer is completed. Then the next layer of sintering is carried out, and after all the sintering is completed, the excess powder is removed, and a sintered part can be obtained. At present, the mature process materials are wax powder and plastic powder, and the process of sintering with metal powder or ceramic powder is still under study.

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5.Metal deposition

Somewhat similar to “squeeze cream” style fused deposition, but the spray is metal powder. While spraying metal powder materials, the nozzle also provides high-power laser and inert gas protection. This will not be limited by the size of the metal powder box, and can directly manufacture larger volume parts, and it is also very suitable for repairing partially damaged precision parts.

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6.Roll Forming

The roll forming method uses a series of continuous stands to roll stainless steel into complex shapes. The sequence of rolls is designed so that the roll profile of each stand continuously deforms the metal until the desired final shape is achieved. If the shape of the part is complex, up to thirty-six racks can be used, but for parts with a simple shape, three or four racks are sufficient.

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7.Die forging

refers to the forging method that uses a die to form a blank on a special die forging equipment to obtain a forging. The forgings produced by this method are accurate in size, small in machining allowance, complex in structure and high in productivity.

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8.Die cutting

That is the blanking process. Position the film formed in the previous process on the male die of the punching die, close the die to remove excess material, retain the 3D shape of the product, and match the mold cavity.

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9.Die-cutting process

knife mold – knife mold cutting process, position the film panel or circuit on the bottom plate, fix the knife mold on the machine template, and use the force provided by the machine to control the blade to cut the material. The difference between him and the punching die is that the incision is smoother; at the same time, by adjusting the cutting pressure and depth, the effects of indentation and half-break can be punched out. At the same time, the low-cost operation of the mold is more convenient, safe and fast.

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10.Centrifugal casting

It is a technology and method of injecting liquid metal into a high-speed rotating mold, so that the molten metal fills the mold and forms a casting under the action of centrifugal force. The mold used in centrifugal casting, according to the shape, size and production batch of the casting, can choose non-metallic mold (such as sand mold, shell mold or investment shell mold), metal mold or coating layer or resin sand layer in the metal mold. of casting.

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11.Lost foam casting

It is to combine paraffin or foam models similar in size and shape to the castings into a model cluster. After brushing the refractory paint and drying, it is buried in dry quartz sand for vibration modeling, and poured under negative pressure to make the model cluster. Model gasification, liquid metal occupies the position of the model, solidified and cooled to form a new casting method. Lost Foam Casting is a new process with nearly no allowance and precise forming. This process does not require mold taking, no parting surface, and no sand core, so the casting has no flash, burr and draft angle, and reduces the number of mold cores. Dimensional error caused by combination.

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12.Squeeze casting

Also known as liquid die forging, is to inject molten metal or semi-solid alloy directly into an open mold, and then close the mold to generate a filling flow to reach the outer shape of the part, and then apply high pressure to make it. The solidified metal (shell) is plastically deformed, the unsolidified metal is subjected to isostatic pressing, and high-pressure solidification occurs at the same time, and finally the method of obtaining the product or blank is the direct squeeze casting; A method of injecting metal or semi-solid alloy into a closed mold cavity through a punch, and applying high pressure to make it crystallize and solidify under pressure, and finally obtain a product or blank.

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13.Continuous casting

It is a casting method that continuously pours liquid metal at one end by using a through mold, and continuously pulls out the molding material from the other end.

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14.Drawing process

It is a plastic processing method that uses external force to act on the front end of the drawn metal, and pulls the metal blank from the die hole smaller than the blank section to obtain the corresponding shape and size of the product. Because drawing is mostly carried out in a cold state, it is also called cold drawing or cold drawing.

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It is a forming and processing method of applying external force to sheets, strips, pipes and profiles by means of presses and dies to cause plastic deformation or separation to obtain workpieces (stampings) of the required shape and size.


16.Metal Injection Molding (MIM for short)

It is a new type of powder metallurgy near-net forming technology derived from the plastic injection molding industry. It is well known that plastic injection molding technology produces various complex shapes at low prices. The strength of plastic products is not high. In order to improve their performance, metal or ceramic powder can be added to the plastic to obtain products with high strength and good wear resistance. In recent years, the idea has evolved to maximize the solids content and completely remove the binder and densify the green body during the subsequent sintering process. This new powder metallurgy forming method is called metal injection molding.

Metal Injection Molding

17.Turning processing

It is means that lathe processing is a part of mechanical processing. Lathe machining mainly uses turning tools to turn the rotating workpiece. Lathes are mainly used to process shafts, discs, sleeves and other workpieces with revolving surfaces, and are the most widely used type of machine tool in machinery manufacturing and repair factories. Turning is a method of cutting a workpiece on a lathe using the rotation of the workpiece relative to the tool. The cutting energy of turning is mainly provided by the workpiece rather than the tool.

Turning is the most basic and common cutting method and plays a very important role in production. Turning is su

Turning processing

Turning processing

itable for machining revolving surfaces. Most workpieces with revolving surfaces can be processed by turning methods, such as inner and outer cylindrical surfaces, inner and outer conical surfaces, end faces, grooves, threads, and rotary forming surfaces. The tools used are mainly turning tools.